Cognitive Rehab means a number of things

First of all, it can look like 'learning disabilities', or ADD/ADHD and may be both. It can also look like Alzheimer's or a person that says one thing and does another. Brain parts get injured in a whole host of ways and leave challenges that are sometimes minor and sometimes significant in handling day to day things. Speech Pathologists come to play a part in helping folks adjust to changes in how their brain works. We're like school teachers only you're too old to go back to school to relearn OR your school isn't focusing on bigger brain functions and just focusing on articulation challenges because the school speech therapist doesn't feel comfortable addressing larger learning issues.

Brain parts that are affected in various injuries include: frontal lobe where executive functioning play a part, brain stem parts like the hippocampus and amygdala where memory and emotions play a part, the left side temporal-occipital lobe where organizing language plays a part, the occipital lobe where understanding what you see plays a part, and the right side temporal-occipital lobe where gestalt processing plays a part. Go to wikipedia.com to learn more about these brain parts; there's no sense in me going into any detail here, my website is large enough already. One way to look at the challenges presented in a person is to use the following and see what area(s) is/are "the challenge(s)"

Adamovich Hierachy of Cognition
            -attention types
                        -arousal/alertness (basic form of attention)

                        -sustained attention (focus on one task)
                                    -by staring is not sustain..completing a task
                        -selective attention
                                    -competing activity and determine what is important
                                    -
                        -divided attention
                                    -multi-tasks to complete multi tasks
                                    -listening, talking on the phone
                        -speed of processing
                                    -head injury (brain slows down: slow and accurate, fast and inaccurate)
                                                -slow and accurate is determine by goals of therapy
            Memory and new learning
                        -working memory (hippocampus)
                                    -short term memory
                        -procedural memory
                                    e.g.motor function, riding a bicycle
                        -episodic memory-emotional related memories
                        -semantic memory-knowledge-base memory or world knowledge
                                    e.g. education
                        -prospective memory-ability to tell the future.
                                    e.g. skills is lost quickly

                        -long-term memory-stored information

Other ways to look at challenges is in regards to Activities of Daily Living:

What specifically can't they do that they wish to try and do again. There's no sense working on writing checks or balancing the checkbook or reading paragraphs if the person didn't do that before their injury. Because I was a rehab counselor prior to being a Speech Pathologist, I tend tolook at things from a very functional perspective. This being said, that is why I like to have the therapy sessions in one's home rather than an office and why I'm not big on doing games/worksheets except to hand out as homework AND why I want to have family and friends attending the sesessions because these are the folks the patient "communicates" with and interacts with and they are the ones that need to learn a new way to initiate/maintain the communication and activities of daily living.